Clinical Trials

Frequently Asked Questions

Following are commonly asked questions related to cancer clinical trials. This information is provided by the National Cancer Institute. More information is available at cancer.gov. For questions specific to cancer clinical trials being conducted at the University of Cincinnati, call (513) 584-7698.

What are clinical trials?

Clinical trials are research studies in which people help doctors find ways to improve health and cancer care. Each study tries to answer scientific questions and to find better ways to prevent, diagnose or treat cancer.

Why are clinical trials conducted?

A clinical trial is one of the final stages of a long and careful cancer research process. Studies are done with cancer patients to find out whether promising approaches to cancer prevention, diagnosis and treatment are safe and effective.

What are the different types of clinical trials?

• Treatment trials test new treatments (like a new cancer drug, new approaches to surgery or radiation therapy, new combinations of treatments, or new methods such as gene therapy). See Taking Part in Cancer Treatment Research Studies.

• Prevention trials test new approaches, such as medicines, vitamins, minerals or other supplements that doctors believe may lower the risk of a certain type of cancer. These trials look for the best way to prevent cancer in people who have never had cancer or to prevent cancer from coming back or a new cancer from occurring in people who have already had cancer. See Understanding Cancer Prevention Trials for additional information, as well as If You Want To Find Ways To Prevent Cancer...Learn About Prevention Clinical Trials.

• Screening trials test the best way to find cancer, especially in its early stages. See Screening and Testing to Detect Cancer for additional information.

• Quality of Life trials (also called Supportive Care trials) explore ways to improve comfort and quality of life for cancer patients. See Coping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative Care for additional information.

What are the phases of clinical trials?

Most clinical research that involves the testing of a new drug progresses in an orderly series of steps, called phases. This allows researchers to ask and answer questions in a way that results in reliable information about the drug and protects the patients. Most clinical trials are classified into one of three phases:

• Phase I trials: These first studies in people evaluate how a new drug should be given (by mouth, injected into the blood, or injected into the muscle), how often and what dose is safe. A phase I trial usually enrolls only a small number of patients, sometimes as few as a dozen.

• Phase II trials: A phase II trial continues to test the safety of the drug, and begins to evaluate how well the new drug works. Phase II studies usually focus on a particular type of cancer.

• Phase III trials: These studies test a new drug, a new combination of drugs or a new surgical procedure in comparison to the current standard. A participant will usually be assigned to the standard group or the new group at random (called randomization). Phase III trials often enroll large numbers of people and may be conducted at many doctors' offices, clinics and cancer centers nationwide.

In addition, after a treatment has been approved and is being marketed, the drug's maker may study it further in a phase IV trial. The purpose of phase IV trials is to evaluate the side effects, risks and benefits of a drug over a longer period of time and in a larger number of people than in phase III clinical trials. Thousands of people are involved in a phase IV trial.